The primary goal of the Center for Affordable Nanoengineering of Polymeric Biomedical Devices (CANPBD) is to develop polymer-based, low-cost nanomaterials and nanoengineering technology to produce advanced medical diagnostic devices, cellbased devices, and multifunctional polymer-nanoparticle-biomolecule nanostructures for next-generation medical and pharmaceutical applications. Although challenging, this goal provides opportunities for scientific breakthroughs, cutting edge technologies and novel interdisciplinary system integration. Fundamental science and engineering is one of the major foci of our center. In Phase I, many useful nanotechnologies, devices and nanoconstructs have been developed. Each has specific merits and value-added capabilities providing for near-term applications. Following this success, we plan to establish a nanotechnology pipeline in Phase II to address the need for (1) ‘up-stream’ fundamental science, (2) high risk technologies meeting long-term research objectives, and (3) ‘down-stream’ devices and nanoconstructs requiring integrated system-level effort.